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Over the years, leadership styles have been studied extensively in various contexts using different theoretical foundations. As researches grow and expand, a broader focus has been placed on organizational culture. While many cultures have traditionally considered that leaders are born, current researchers and theorists consider that leadership can be learned. In this regard, issues that relate to culture should be addressed in a leadership context. Effective leadership depends on leaders’ understanding of their behaviors, expectations, and attitudes, and those of their followers. Due to internationalization of businesses and organizations, it has become increasingly evident that certain leadership styles or methods are more effective than others. However, leaders should be able to effectively manage the environments they oversee by monitoring and controlling projects, budgets, recruitment and retention, labor costs, procedures and policies etc. It is also believed that they should engage in activities that encourage their followers to aim towards achievement of personal and organizational goals. While leaders tend to motivate their followers, they also try to structure organizations in the way they want. This has sparked interest in studies of cultural management whereby various theories have been studied in relation to leadership concepts. Most of the researches conducted on leadership are focused on ways leaders behave or relate to their subordinates and order case study. The aim of this paper is to investigate and relate leadership theories to their practical application as demonstrated by leaders who are considered as either negative or positive. The research also discusses qualities of some leaders based on the leadership theories.

The Concept of Leadership
There are many definitions of leadership but it is believed that leaders are able to deliberately produce results that would not have been achieved otherwise. A leader doesn’t always refer to chief executive officer of an organization; it can be anyone who leads a team towards the achievement of successful results. A leader might lead through official power or authority, yet great leaders lead based on personal connection, persuasion, inspiration etc. However, leadership does not just refer to creating good results, but good leaders often deliberately achieve challenging results using the help of others. They can single-handedly transform companies into successful organizations. Thus, the following are the most important characteristics that describe good leaders:
Self-Direction- Good leaders should be able to direct themselves effectively and powerfully. They should know how to get things done in an organized manner without procrastination. They should be able to generate energy needed to accomplish projects and to remain calm even when they are angered. Every good leader should be able to make necessary decisions quickly, but sometimes should be able to make slow decisions in order to consider all options.

Self-Awareness- This helps leaders have intimate knowledge of their inner emotional condition. They are expected to know their strengths and weaknesses. They should know when they overwork and when they are not working enough. Good leaders are expected to know their capabilities and limitations which help them strive towards maximum potential.
Motivational Skills- Leaders do not lead by only telling their followers what they need to do, but they should make people want to help. A major component of this is an ability to cultivate the desire to help others.
Social Awareness- Every good leader should understand the importance of social networks. They should have the most clout either officially or unofficially. They should also be able to touch their followers` hearts.
Vision- Good leaders do work towards goals that are greater than them. These goals could be small or large. However, working towards realizing visions is more inspiring as compared to working to satisfy personal interest.

Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Many authors have tried to make a distinction between managers that depend on their formal positions, mostly working with bureaucratic processes such as organizing, budgeting, planning, controlling etc. and rely on their visions, personal abilities etc., and those who mainly influence people’s thinking and feelings by non-coercive means. However, it is true that leadership exists in one of two ways, either transformational or transactional.

Transformational leadership refers to a form of leadership that motivates followers appealing to their moral values and higher ideals. This form of leadership tends to define and articulate a vision which the followers should be able to accept. It is stated that transformational leadership is based on four dimensions.

The first is idealized influence which is described as behavior that brings about followers` trust, respect, and admiration. The leader shares risks together with the followers and considers their needs over his/her personal needs based on moral or ethical conduct. The second dimension is inspirational motivation which is seen in behaviors that challenge and provide meaning to followers. This includes those behaviors that articulate clear expectations that illustrate devotion to goals of an organization. The third dimension is intellectual stimulation which makes leaders solicit creative problem solving and new ideas from followers, encouraging the establishment of new approaches to job performance. The fourth dimension of transformational leadership is individualized consideration. This dimension is seen in a leader who listens attentively to his/her followers and pays special attention to their needs and achievements.

On the other hand, in transactional leadership followers are rewarded for good performance and their accomplishments are recognized. A leader observes their performance and discovers deviations from standards and rules, and makes corrections. However, he/she only intervenes if standards are not met. Some qualities of transactional leaders are: ability to motivate their followers to focus on higher morality and values; empower others to achieve the set goals; ability to create and articulate goals that are related to organizational vision.

While transformational leadership is based on traditional views of organizations and workers, a leader seeks for ways to help motivate his/her followers by meeting their needs and making them totally engaged in the work process. Researchers discovered that these forms of leadership were separated. Thus, a leader is either transformational or transactional. However, based on the theoretical concepts, Nelson Mandela is considered as a transformational leader, and an example of a transactional leader is Joseph McCarthy. The leaders exhibit the distinct leadership qualities highlighted earlier.

Charismatic Leadership
Charismatic leadership refers to the concept of devotion to the exceptional sanctity, exemplary character or heroism of an individual, and a normative order or pattern exhibited by the individual. Charismatic leaders are able to make their followers follow them without questioning them. Charismatic leaders appeal strongly to their followers’ values. This is a psychological bond between leaders and their followers which makes those leaders succeed. This form of leadership is considered as a compound product of three major factors a social situation that demands such a leadership style; leaders and their attributes; and an interaction between leaders and their followers. However, this leadership style undergoes six processes, from the rise of a leader to his/her fall. The steps are discussed below, using Mahatma Gandhi as an example of a charismatic leader.

· Identification- This step results from a combination of three factors mentioned earlier. It is a state when the aspiring leader is on the social horizon and the followers are in distress, seeking for someone to identify with their problems. At this stage, an individual is automatically established as a potential leader, but the followers remain passive in this process.
· Activity Arousal- At this stage, the leader tends to arouse their followers and make them be part of the change. This makes the passive admirers of the leader actively support the leader and the change process.
· Commitment- The commitment stage is definitely the most interesting stage of the leadership process. It takes charismatic leaders at the peak, and at the same time it is the stage when the leaders start to loss their charisma. However, this step begins by showing the extreme commitment of a charismatic leader to the goal, and the followers’ commitment to the leader. Also, at this stage charismatic leaders tend to bifurcate into two categories: socialized and personalised leadership. Personalized leadership tends to be exploitative and authoritarian while socialized leadership tends to be more egalitarian and a leader shares power and responsibility with others. An example of a personalized leader is Adolf Hitler who ultimately became a dictator. Gandhi is seen as the combination of both categories with definitive inclination towards socialized leadership.
· Disenchantment- This phase of charismatic leadership is quite inevitable and sometimes becomes intentional on the part of the leader. Disenchantment comes into play because leaders start to routinize the leadership. As a result some followers start feeling disappointed. While charismatic leaders tend not to be very good at formal procedural leadership, the more leadership is being routinized, the stronger the disappointment and disenchantment of followers.
· Depersonalization- Depersonalization comes as a result of disenchantment. However, this makes the leadership style become more like a bureaucratic leadership whereby the leader starts to delegate his/her tasks to his/her followers.
· Alienation- Alienation is the process of disintegration of the three factors discussed earlier. Therefore, due to bureaucratization and formalization of leadership, charismatic leaders become more redundant. This makes the followers assume or feel that leadership and an organization are deviating from the initial goals; thus they start alienating themselves from the organization. This makes charisma of the leader fade away as the social situation changes. However, this does not necessarily mean that the leader has failed.

Mission, Vision and PLOC
Mission and vision both relate to an organizational purpose which is typically communicated in a written form. These are organizational statements that answer a question about an organization and leadership, their values and targets. Leaders that clearly communicate, understand and collectively share vision and mission have proven to be more successful than leaders without those elements. A mission statement shows the reason why leaders exist and how they aim at satisfying their followers` needs. Vision statement, on the other hand, is a future-oriented declaration of the purpose and aspirations of leaders and organizations.

It is also important to consider four functions abbreviated as the P-L-O-C. The four functions seem to provide a very useful way of classifying the activities of leaders as they attempt to achieve their leadership goals.
· Planning- This management function involves setting of defining objectives and determining a course of action in order to achieve the objectives. This function requires managers to be aware of environmental conditions facing their organization by forecasting future conditions. This requires that leaders should possess good decision-making abilities. However, this function comprises of strategic planning, operational planning and tactical planning.
· Leading- Leading refers to informal and social sources of influence that leaders use to inspire others. For leaders to effectively lead others, they must first understand values, emotions, personalities and attitudes of their followers. However, motivation is very important since followers can be energized to be more productive.
· Organizing- This management or leadership function involves development of organizational structures and assignment of human resources in order to ensure that the objectives are accomplished. This function also involves design of individual jobs within organizations. In this regard, leaders of organizations must be able to make quality decisions about the responsibilities and duties of employees, and also the manner in which those responsibilities will be carried out.
· Controlling- This leadership function helps to ensure that performance does not deviate from standards; this is achieved by: establishing performance standards, comparing the standards to the actual performance, and taking corrective actions whenever necessary. This function should not be confused with control in a manipulative sense. It does not mean that leaders should manipulate emotions, personalities, attitudes, or values of their followers. Instead, it concerns the roles of leaders in taking necessary actions in order to make sure that work-related activities are consistent and lead to the accomplishment of organizational objectives.

Espoused Theory versus Theory in Use
Theorists Donald Schon and Chris Argyris in their theories suggest that people have mental maps of how to plan, achieve and review actions they take in particular situations. These sets of conscious beliefs, rules and assumptions guide their actions. These theorists describe these mental maps associated with people’s actions as the theories in use, while their conscious beliefs and explanations are considered the espoused theories. However, combination of espoused theory and theory-in-use tends to increase effectiveness in leadership.
eadership Biases
As an extension to self-awareness, it was suggested that leaders who exhibit an ability to understand their internal self-schemas are usually able to better identify their personal biases as a form of increased self-awareness. Thus, if leaders are able to combine their self-awareness with the ability to communicate, then, they will be able to correct biases that appear when they interact with people. While taking part in self-reflective processes of gaining self-awareness, authentic leaders do not ignore or exaggerate collected information, but they should be attentive to both negative and positive interpretations of them and their leadership styles.

Unbiased leadership is a type of leadership which is based on personal integrity and character, hence influencing the strategic actions and decision-making abilities of leaders. Therefore, authentic leaders should implement diagnostic tools, procedures and rules that establish self-awareness as a major element of a mechanism of formal feedback which helps people get to know more about them. As such, balanced processing is vital to accurately assess people’s abilities during interpersonal communication.

Authentic versus Inauthentic Leadership Communications
Authentic leadership is described as a process which results in both greater self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors on the part of leaders and followers which tend to foster positive self-development. The current discourse on authentic leadership tends to be focused on their attributes and values such as optimism, hope, resilience, accountability, trust-worthiness, integrity, fairness, respect, etc. However, the core capabilities of authentic leadership include balanced processing, self-awareness, relational transparency and self-regulation.

There are many factors that affect authentic leadership communications such as individual defensive routines which affect organizational knowledge transfer and leaning between leaders and followers. For example, strategic leadership can experience natural tensions that might prevent authentic leaders from being transparent to others. Some strategic information might be confidential and should be concealed. Therefore, strategic leaders are obliged to establish corporate communication within organizations. On the contrary, if attributes and values of authentic leadership are not consistent with the leadership goals, they are considered as qualities of inauthentic leadership communication.

The Effects of Leadership on Dependent and Independent Variables
The dependent and independent variable are the leadership style dimensions that are based on transformational and transactional leadership concepts. The dependent valuables are organizational values that depend on other values for their existence, and some of the dependent variables include salesperson's` turnover and their commitment to organizational standards. On the contrary, the independent valuables are organizational values that do not depend on other values for their existence. Some of the independent variables that relate to transactional leadership are management-by-exception, contingent reward while the independent variables that relate to transformational leadership are intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, inspirational motivation and individualized consideration. However, bad leadership tends to negatively affect these variables, especially the dependent variables, while good leadership positively influences those variables. This is because some of the variables tend to improve with improved leadership qualities while some are affected by bad leadership qualities.

The Effects of Recognition and Reward Systems on Leader and Followers` Behavior
Fiedler’s concept of situational favorability considers two variables which define leadership efficiency: leadership style; and the extent to which followers are favorably influenced by leaders in a certain situation. This theory was defined as a combination of a relationship between members and leader, power and task structure. However, it was discovered that some leadership styles are more effective in certain situations. Fiedler’s theory also offered another way of distinguishing between leadership behaviors that are task-oriented and those that are relations-oriented.

Leadership behaviors depend on whether employees can consider their work as positive experience when provided with the required conditions such as positive reinforcement, encouragement, recognition and rewards. However, it was suggested that leadership behaviors fall into two dimensions: leaders’ concern with the relationship either socio-emotional support or relationship orientation; and leaders’ concern with the task which includes task orientation and structuring.

As leaders and followers grow in ability, capacity, education, self-esteem, motivation, confidence, education, etc., there is an increasing need for socio-emotional support and encouragement. Therefore, recognition and reward, as forms of motivation and satisfaction greatly influence the efficiency of a leader and his/her followers, and their behaviors in organizations. Thus, leadership and followership of recognition and reward influence their satisfaction and motivation to achieve their goals.

Impact of Culture on Leadership
Effective organizations usually have strong cultures that are shaped by leadership. Culture is the expression of people’s deepest desires, and a means of endowing their experience with meaning. It is a set of values that people share which influence their way of life, behavior and their perception (such as attitudes and beliefs) which makes them different. Although they have produced several results, it is true that most cultures influence attitudes towards leadership behaviors. Culture tends to influence people’s attitude towards leadership styles and decision-making abilities of leaders.

Culture that influences authentic communication may be necessary but not sufficient to allow all members of an organization to perceive all communications as authentic because environmental uncertainty may also be influential. More so, some cultural factors tend to affect authentic leadership communication in organizations, especially in a multi-cultural context. Therefore, culture has a great impact on leadership, especially in terms of communication, which is very critical to a leader-follower relationship.
In conclusion, leadership is believed to be the art of leading people to deliberately produce results that would not have been achieved otherwise. A leader does not always refer to chief executive officer of an organization, but it can be anyone who leads a team towards the achievement of successful results. Leaders might lead through official power or authority, yet great leaders lead based on personal connection, persuasion, inspiration etc. However, leadership does not just refer to achievement of good results, but good leaders often deliberately achieve challenging results by using the help of others. As discussed in the paper, the following are the most important characteristics that describe good leaders:
Self-Direction- This means that good leaders should be able to direct themselves effectively and powerfully. They should know how to get things done in an organized manner without procrastination.
Self-Awareness- This quality helps leaders have intimate knowledge of their inner emotional condition. They are expected to know their strengths and weaknesses.
Motivational Skills- This quality explains the fact that leaders do not lead by only telling their followers what they need to do, but they should make people want to help.
Social Awareness- Every good leader should understand social networks and their importance. They should have the most clout either officially or unofficially.
Vision- Good leaders do work towards goals that are greater than them. These goals could be small or large visions.
In addition, many authors have tried to make a distinction between managers that depend on their formal positions, mostly working with bureaucratic processes such as organizing, budgeting, planning, controlling etc., and rely on their visions, personal abilities, visions etc., and those who mainly influence people’s thinking and feelings by non-coercive means. In this regard, transformational leadership is seen as a form of leadership that motivates followers by appealing to their moral values and higher ideals. Transactional leadership refers to an exchange of rewards; followers are rewarded for good performance and their accomplishments are recognized.

Charismatic leadership as discussed earlier is based on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, exemplary character or heroism of an individual, and a normative order or pattern exhibited by the individual. Both mission and vision are related to an organizational purpose which is typically communicated in a written form. However, four functions seem to provide a very useful way of classifying the activities of leaders as they attempt to achieve their leadership goals. Also, some other leadership concepts were discussed in the paper such as authenticity of leadership communication, cultural effect on leadership etc. However, leadership qualities are related to leadership theories and their practical application as demonstrated by leaders who are considered as either negative or positive.

Updated 09-10-2019 at 02:48 AM by joannewhite

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